The post Revolution through Embedded Systems with Data Analytics appeared first on EE-Vibes.
]]>Embedded structure is the foundation of electrical industry. Embedded structures are made for a special reasons. Embedded structure is an integrated machine hardware and software. On the basis system you need microprocessors. A highly embedded system divided into 2 main parts.
Based on performance and operational requirements which moreover it is divided into four types as real time, private, network and mobile. Based on time or deadline system, digital camera, wireless MP3 is an example of performance and an integrated operating system.
Based on the performance of a small controller can be divided into three types called small scale, medium scale and a sophisticated embedded system. Controller, temperature measurement system, ATMs etc. are an example of microcontroller.
It as specific way of analyzing the data and produce the resultant data from it. There are four types of it as follows :
Descriptive analysis is a analytical summary of green statistics. It is usually used to identify a particular design from previous statistics. Create a pattern of better hopes too new decision-making policies.
Diagnostic statistics are to obtain accurate information provided problem. It gives the end of the problem from where it started with detailed description.
Predictability statistics provide predictions based on obtained statistics. This analysis is used to predict accurate time of the event to take place. Forecasting statistics is the base of all speculative models.
It is used to take the best possible actions using the provided results and obtain the best results.
The embedded structure can generate large amounts of statistics. This proven statistics can be important for improvement for any product service. Through analytics the user can interpret and predict functionality of a given system. That’s where the data starts uploaded to that system and beyond. It starts once the upload of data to the system. Include some previous processing and the data algorithm will then develop a trained model. The same procedure applied for by a trained model also applies predicted model by adding a prediction.
embedded systems and IoT play an important role healthcare industries. People use these machines there doctor visits are rarely due to remoteness places. Recent advances in medical robots the field has opened robotic applications for robots.
New products in the field of embedded structure are productive embedded machines can have applications in agriculture to less the load of the farmer. Farmer takes advantage of tools for plowing, cutting grass, planting and much more . Fruit harvest or vegetables. devices must need to see something and do something according to the wisdom given to man that device.
In modern times the embedded structure is essential in education. The knowledge sector can have advantage of this opportunity an embedded machine as it is less expensive, less light weight, composure in size and less power expenditure. These instruments will provide options that can be used for a variety of purposes teaching platforms to enhance and improve the process. The tour plan, the character, the similes are an example embedded systems are currently in an educational state. Students begin to learn the embedded structure in the school.
The embedded system is an integral part of the military or defense of any country. Embedded system is just as important as power tools. Embedded systems such as drone, mining discovery, and much more.
Many industries use embedded systems for production, testing, and security management. The embedded system makes the job easier for the industry. Automatically make the production machine make fast production and packaging.
The home is neighboring by an embedded structure, which makes it Homeowners work easier and time saver. Case like home-mounted automatic transmission systems are a washing machine, microwave, fan, house cleaning robots etc.
Most of all industries are closed with an embedded system. Ku this paper, the proposed embedded system that will build with one small controller and other gas-like sensors sensor, fire sensor, temperature sensor and air sensor. The microcontroller meets the temperature detector, air detector, gas sensor, buzzer, 16X2 LCD device, and internet storage. Temperature detector and gas sensor temperature and gas level in the atmosphere. At the time of user development set a predefined temperature range once gas extent, if the sensor is sensed later than that level system it will notice people through buzzer. The air sensor is given an evacuation guide and indicates that guidance on LCD. Temperature air temperature sensor and gas sensor will keep it in the cloud for a period of time internet. Raw data storage for cloud storage helps productivity some logical data through data analysis.
At the conclusion of research paper report , the use of futuristic as well the applications of embedded systems can be seen. We, as The writer of paper seeks to elaborate the research of embedded system in the industry with large scale use of data analysis. Author has highlighted happenings and future of the embedded system as well the 2nd part laid groundwork for data analysis. Embedded systems data is awaited is in a pure state like a little percent error because statistics is taken impulsive. The data speed is very fast like data is captured by system again complete the installed procedures. These are a large number data, if taken with good design and complexity embedded system, can be verified as an important key in for data statistics.
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]]>The post Fully-funded PhD studentship in Photonics Available appeared first on EE-Vibes.
]]>Fully-funded PhD studentship in Photonics Available. Full-time study for a defined period of four years
October 2022 is the start date.
The deadline for applications is April 15, 2022. (or until filled)
One of the academics in the Photonics group is the primary supervisor.
UKRI’s eligibility criteria can be found here.
A PhD studentship is available to work on future photonic devices and systems in the Photonics Group (Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, UCL).
Funding: The studentship covers Home tuition expenses as well as a £17,285 yearly stipend (2020-2021), which will increase annually in line with inflation. Consumables, books, professional memberships, and travel to workshops and conferences will all be covered by additional funding.
Photonics is a technology that is now widely used in a variety of applications. It’s at the heart of a slew of new advancements, including self-driving cars, quantum computing, and the Internet. The work at UCL focuses on a variety of issues ranging from materials to complete systems. Semiconductor materials and the development of silicon photonics integrated platforms, integrated photonics, ultrafast photonic devices, future liquid crystal technology, photonic metamaterial development, photonic analogue to digital conversion, THz photonics, wireless and radio over fibre, converged wireless and optical networks, and THz characterization and microscopy are some of the key areas of research.
The group has access to world-class facilities such as molecular beam epitaxy material growth for novel material development and silicon photonics integrated circuits, state-of-the-art cleanroom facilities for device fabrication, and six experimental labs with cutting-edge equipment for microwave and optical wave measurements.
We anticipate offering a number of PhD research opportunities within our group, and please do not hesitate to contact any of our supervisors for more information. We currently hold a unique position in the field of THz photonics.
The chosen applicants will work in the Photonics Group of the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering. Academically, applicants should have a (minimum of a 2’1) undergraduate degree or equivalent in physics, communications, or electronic and electrical engineering, as well as a demonstrated talent and enthusiasm for research. Our group’s research might span from completely experimental to completely theoretical modelling.
The ideal applicant would possess some or all of the skills and knowledge listed below.
Experiments in electronics, physics measurement, optics, or photonics characterization are all desirable.
Computer modelling experience for a variety of engineering challenges or physical phenomena.
Experience with common software tools for modelling electromagnetic, physics, and other problems (e.g. ADS, CST studio, HFSS, Comsol Multiphysics, Lumerical)
MATLAB, C++, Python, and Java are examples of scientific computer programming.
Additional information: The student will typically work closely with researchers within the group and be part of larger projects as well as integrating a larger cohort of PhD student within the Centre for Doctoral Training in Connected Electronic and Photonic Systems. The Photonics Group has a lengthy track record of producing high-quality, highly successful PhDs. A substantial number of them have won a slew of accolades and awards for their work, and they currently work in some of the world’s most prestigious academic and industrial research labs.
Use the UCL online application system to apply, and make sure to include the name of the supervisor(s) you’d like to work with.
For casual inquiries, please send a CV, a list of any publications, and a cover letter to the supervisor(s) with whom you would want to work. Any questions concerning the project can be sent to the possible supervisor.
For information on the PhD program within the department, please contact the phdenquiries@ee.ucl.ac.uk.
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]]>The post How to determine the overflow of signed and unsigned numbers? appeared first on EE-Vibes.
]]>How to define and determine overflow of signed and unsigned numbers? Why it is necessary to get the idea of overflow? Numbers represented in computer system have always have a specific range. It depends on how many bits your system process. Some systems are 32 bits while other are 64-bits. With the advancement in technology we have now larger bits processing systems. But they have limited range of numbers they can represent. Overflow refers to the condition when the given bits can not represent the given number. It means that number needs more bits for its representation. There is another situation where the number is small enough and not representable according to the given pattern of numbers. This is called underflow.
How to define and determine overflow of unsigned numbers? Unsigned integers are those integers that are used for representing the magnitudes. They do not need any sign for their representation because these quantities are always positive. Such quantities are used for representing the quantities such as addresses of memory locations, and ASCII characters codes.
The largest value that can be stores in 8-bits is (11111111) FFH that is 255 in decimal. Similarly in a word this value becomes (FFFFH) or 65535. Now the question arises how these values are determined. The general formula is to calculate (2^n)-1. Where n is the given number of bits for which you want to determine the range. For example, for 8 bits we have 2^8-1= 256-1=255. 1 is subtracted because 0 is included in the range. So there are total 256 numbers and the range for 8-bit numbers is 0 to 255.
The same formula can be extended for any number of bits. If the least significant bit (LSB) of a binary combination is zero then the number is even and if it is one (1) then the number is odd.
How to define and determine overflow of signed numbers? Unsigned Integers are little bit tricky to understand. All we need is little bit more attention for understanding them. Whenever a number is treated as signed then it be either positive or negative. In binary representation, the most significant bit (MSB) is reserved for representing the sign. If MSB=0 then the number is positive and if MSB=1, then the number is negative.
In order to determine the range of signed numbers consider the following example of 8 bit numbers
For 8 bit numbers, msb is reserved for sign so all bits will be equal to 1( 01111111) while representing the largest positive number. The weighted binary sum of this combination gives
The smallest negative number is 1000 0000 means all other bits are equal to zero and only sign bit is set high.
The negative numbers are usually stored as 2’s compliment or by taking the one’s compliment and then adding 1 in it.
Consider we want to store -3 in computer
first find its binary combination in 8 bits that is
0000 0011
take one’s compliment (For this invert all bits) so
1’s compliment is: 1111 1100
and then add 1 in it.
1111 1100
+1
_________________
1111 1101
_________________
so in this way any number can be stored.
The range of n bit signed numbers is determines as (2^n)/2 -1
In case of 8-bit numbers
2^8=256
2^8/2=128
128-1=127
so the numbers lie in between -128 to 127. If a number that has value out of this range then it will cause overflow. E.g., if there is an addition of two numbers that fall within the range. Now their resultant is some number that does not lie within this range then it will show overflow. Status flag is used for representing the overflow.
There can be both types of overflow, signed overflow and unsigned overflow. It depends how the numbers are treated.
Consider the following example again
1111 1111 1111 1111
+0000 0000 0000 0001
____________________
1 0000 0000 0000 0000
____________________
if both numbers are treated as unsigned numbers , then the first combination gives (65535) and second combination is equal to 1. Adding both of them will result 65536 that is out of range of unsigned integers (as 65535 is the largest possible value). Here unsigned overflow occurred.
If both numbers are treated as signed then the first number (1111 1111 1111 1111) is equal to -1
and the second number is (+1)
so if we add (-1)+(1) then the resultant is equal to zero which is true as it matches with the result (1 0000 0000 0000 0000). So no signed overflow occurred.
0111 1111 1111 1111
0111 1111 1111 1111 +
_________________
1111 1111 1111 1110
_________________
If the above number is treated as unsigned then its value is (32767). As both numbers are same so when we add them we get, 131068 which falls within the range of unsigned integers. So, no unsigned overflow occurred.
If we treat both of them as signed then both are positive numbers as msb=0. But the resultant has msb =1 which shows some negative number. Although the addition of two positive numbers can never be a negative one so signed overflow occurred. In terms of magnitude the resultant is 131068 that exceeds the value of positive numbers of 16-bit combination (32767).
From above examples it is concluded that signed overflow occurs during addition when there is a carry out of MSB. Which means the represented number is greater than the available bits or biggest numbers FFH for 8-bits and FFFFH for 16 bits. During subtraction the unsigned overflow occurs when there is a borrow into the MSB. In this case the correct answer is actually smaller than 0.
During addition, if both numbers that you are adding are positive but the resultant is negative, then signed overflow occurs. When numbers are of different signs during addition, then signed overflow is impossible. As A-B or -A+B will always be smaller than the available bits. While in subtraction, if the resultant has different sign as expected then it will cause overflow.
Two flags are used for indicating the unsigned overflow (Carry flag CF=1) and (overflow flag OF=1) for signed overflow. These two flags are present in status register of computer.
There is an easy way to understand either there is overflow or not. If there is a carry in into the MSB and a carry out from the MSB then there will be no overflow. But if there a carry in into the MSB but not a carry out or if there is a carry out from the MSB but not a carry in then the overflow occurs.
If you guys have more questions then you are more welcome!!!
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]]>The post How to design a four bit adder-subtractor circuit? appeared first on EE-Vibes.
]]>In this article you will learn about how to design a four bit adder-subtractor circuit? Every Digital Computer should always execute two arithmetic Operations: addition & subtraction. Multiplication & Division operations become simple if both of these tasks are implemented properly (Multiplication is equivalent to repeated addition, whereas division is equivalent to repeated subtraction). Take into account the process of trying to add multiple binary numbers, that is the basic operations executed by a computer system. The four fundamental addition operations for multiple binary numbers which are single bit, are as follows:
Every Digital Computer should always execute two arithmetic Operations: Every binary addition during first 3 operations yields a total of one bit, namely, either zero or one. However, the output of the 4th addition operation (with inputs of One and one) is 2 binary numbers. here lower significant bit usually referred to as ‘Sum Bit,’ whereas higher significant bit has been referred to as ‘Carry Bit.’
A full adder within Digital Logic
The full adder is an added that takes three inputs &generates two outputs as a result. The first 2 inputs typically A & B, with the third being a C-IN input carry. Output carry generally labelled as C-OUT, whereas normal output labelled as S, that stands for SUM.
Half adder:
A half adder is a type of combinational arithmetic circuitry that uses two numbers addition and outputs an S, sum bit, as well as a C, carry but. The S (sum bit) is the result of the XORing of A & B, and also the C (carry bit) is the ANDing of A & B, if A & B, seem to be input bits.
Binary Adder-Subtractor comprises a digital circuit that can perform basic arithmetic of binary integers in the same circuit. The binary result of a control signal determines the operation to be executed. It’s among the ALU‘s, arithmetic logic unit elements
XOR Gate, Full Adder, and Binary Addition & Subtraction, are all prerequisites for this circuit.
Designing: A single basic binary adder may do both addition & subtraction tasks. As illustrated in the diagram underneath, a binary circuit may be created by combining an Ex-OR gate alongside every full adder. 4-bit parallel adder and 4-bit parallel subtractor shown below has multiple 4 bit inputs labelled ‘A3 A2 A1 A0’ & ‘B3 B2 B1 B0’.
The carry input of the of the full adder’s least significant bit is linked to the mode input control line labelled as k. The kind of execution, either addition and otherwise subtraction, is determined by such a control line.
If k equals to 1, circuit is just a subtractor, but when k equals to zero, it is then converted to an adder. XOR gate has 2 inputs, only one of which being Linked to the B, the other to the input k. Whenever k = 0, B Ex-ORed 0 results in B. Next, full adders perform addition of B & A with carry input 0, resulting in addition operation.
Procedure
Finally, as being one of the outputs of the 2nd full adder, C0 gets serially passed. The sum or difference S0 gets stored as the sum or difference’s least significant bit. A1, A2, & A3 constitute as direct inputs to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th full adders, respectively. The 3rd input would be the B1, B2, B3 XORed K to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th full adders. Carry C1 and C2 get serially passed as inputs towards the consecutive full adder. C3 will become the sum or difference’s total carry. S1, S2, and S3 are recorded in order to build the outcome with S0.We employ n full adders to create an n-bit adder-subtractor.
Adder:
First of all, what is a binary adder? It is a type of digital circuit that usually adds binary numbers using logic gates. In ordinary addition of binary numbers we use only two bits at a time in order to add them i.e we add 1 and 0 at a time or we add 0 and 1 only at a time, moreover we add 1 and 1 or 0 and 0 at a time. But in this system we directly add the whole binary number to another whole binary number at a time with the help of arithmetic circuits. There are two types of adders which are full-adders and half-adders.
Full-adders:
It is used for the addition of significant digits.(carry)
The logic gates which are used in Binary full-adders are And gate, OR gate and EXOR gate.
In practical life, the applications of full adders are that they are used in digital processors.
half-adders:
It is used for addition of Least significant digits.
The logic gates involved in half adders are EX OR gate and AND gate.
Half adders are practically used in digital measuring devices like calculators.
Subtractor:
It is a digital circuit used for subtraction of binary numbers using logic gates. In this we add (2’s compliment and 1) on the number from to be subtracted. For example we have to subtract A from B, We do A+ (2’s compliment of B+1). Two types: Half-subtractor and Full-subtractor.
Full subtractor:
It is the circuit in which subtraction of two bits is done by borrowing. There are three inputs and two outputs.
Half-Subtractor:
The half subtractor is used to subtract two binary . There are two inputs and two outputs on this device. This circuit is used to subtract two binary values, A and B, that are both single bits. The half subtractor has two output states: ‘diff’ and ‘borrow.’
Four bit Adder-Subtractor:
Basically it is a digital circuit which does both addition as well as subtraction itself. This circuit works using an EX-OR gate, binary addition and subtraction, Full adder.
We will need four full adders. Supplying them inputs respectively, A0, A1, A2, A3 for first adder, second adder, third adder, and fourth adder. Now the second input for adders would be output of EX-OR gates, Same as input A, There would be attached four EX-OR gates with all adders respectively. As we all know that this EX-OR gate will have two inputs. The first input of this EX-OR gate would be named as B, and as done previously
We will name B0, B1, B2, B3 respectively. And the second input to this EX-OR gate is what we are providing it to be ‘M’ input which would be the second input of the EX-OR gates and which would be same for all EX-OR gates. This M will decide whether we are performing addition operation or subtraction operation. And Beside all this the 3^{rd} input we are going to provide is to be known as the carry or borrow, which would be the same ‘M’. In case of addition it would be carry while in case of subtraction it would be borrow.
So in addition operation this carry is given to the full-adder and the full adder output would be sum S0 (at the first adder) and carry C1(from the first full adder). And the carry generated would be propagated to the next full adder. Similarly, next full adder will generate sum and generate carry to next full adder, and so on to all full adders.
But if it would be a subtraction operation then instead of sum we would be having difference and instead of carry we would be having borrow. So this is our circuit.
Lets see its working with an example:
If we provide ‘M’ to be ‘0’ all the EX-OR gates will have one fixed input ‘0’ and carry ‘C0’ would also be ‘0’, If we talk about another input of EX-OR gate that is B, So as per truth table of XOR gate if we XOR any value with 0 then it would be same as that value. So as per truth table or XOR ‘0’ XOR ‘ B0’ we would be having output ‘0’. O XOR b1 we would be having B2, 0 XOR B3 we would be having B3. In simple input to this XOR gate would be B. On the other hand on carry side Carry would be 0 because we had fixed M as 0. So in a nutshell the formula for Sum becomes: M=A+B (by taking M=0).
Now considering M to be 1, So all inputs of XOR would be 1, as per truth table of XOR if we XOR any value with 1 it would always be compliment of that value. So B0 XOR 1 would be B0’(B0 compliment). B XOR 1 would be B1’ and so on.
so if we provide M to be 1 then input to full adder becomes compliment of B So it becomes A + B’ + 1. Which is nothing but our subtraction. So formula for subtraction is M= A+B’+1 by (taking value of M 1)
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]]>In this article we have discussed about Implementation of SVD ins Machine Learning. SVD, singular value decomposition is one of the methods of dimension reduction. In the field of machine learning, dimension reduction has become an important topic of today in the environment of big data. There are so many methods of dimension reduction but in this paper two of them are to be discussed that are PCA and SVD. The methods of dimension reduction are continuously developed.
“The method in which the dataset of higher dimension is converted into the dataset of lower dimension with the same information”
In this research paper, the progress of modern research of data dimension reduction is shortly described and some methods of PCA, KPCA and SVD also.
In this paper, the principle of PCA (Principle of component analysis) and the problem of large amount of computation in PCA for data dimension reduction is also described and solved by introducing the theorem of singular value decomposition (SVD).
There is a comparison between SVD and PCA also which describes both of the methods and make it clear that which one is better.
There are two principles explained for the dimension reduction in the methodology:
PCA is one of the methods of dimension reduction. In principle component analysis,
“The dimensionality of attaining a large number of associated elements dataset is to be reduced by converting to a new set of variables.”
All we do in principle component analysis is the interchanging of basis and calculation of principle components.
After the reduction, the components with each other are totally not associated and the data is in the direction of high variance. There are two very important components that are eigenvectors and eigenvalues. As much as the eigenvalue is high, it will provide more information to the regarding eigenvector on the basis.
In PCA method, the variance of data distribution is to be made maximum by reducing the dimensions.
Following are some steps that describe to select those directions and to make variance highest:
There is a method called Eigenvalue decomposition which is an excellent method for extracting the features of a matrix, in reality, most matrices are not square but its downside is that it is only useful for square matrices.
If there are N students for example and every one of them gained M scores, the nxm matrix will not be a square matrix. What are the key characteristics of this type of common matrix?
There is a method that can be applied to any matrix called Singular value decomposition (also known as VSD) can be used to accomplish this, Consider the following formula:
In this equation, “U” represents a matrix of the order mxm if “A” represents mxn ordered matrix. The vector of U matrix is orthogonal and called as left singular vector. is a vector of mxn order matrix and VT is a transpose matrix of V in nxn order. The vector of the transpose of v represented as VT is also orthogonal and known as right singular vector.
Now, what’s the relationship in between eigenvalues and singular values? First and foremost, by multiplying a matrix let’s say A with its transpose matrix AT, we can obtain a square matrix. Now, using the formula where V represents the right singular vectors, we can then compute the square matrix’s eigenvalues. Furthermore, we can obtain these variables:
The variable u is the left singular vector, and the variable is the singular value mentioned above. To the eigenvalue of a matrix, the singular value is identical, except that the values in matrix are ordered from large to tiny and decreased very quickly.
The sum of 99 percent of singular values was accounted for by 10 percent or even 1 percent of single values in many cases. We may utilise the singular value of the previous r to roughly represent the matrix to put it another way and partial singular value decomposition can be described as follows:
In comparison with m and n, r is a considerably smaller value.
Multiplying these three matrices on the right, yields a matrix that is close to A, where r is closer to n and the multiplication result is closer to A. The aggregate of the three matrix areas is substantially smaller than the original matrix A’s area (from the storage point of view, matrix area is smaller, storage size is smaller). So, we just need to save the three matrices
In order to represent the original matrix A in compressed space.
Following are some applications of singular value decomposition.
Even after how good the equipment is used or how well-designed the methodology is, there will always be some approximate measurements in the data we compute. The larger singular values correspond to the matrix’s principle information, as previously stated, making SVD an appropriate tool for data analysis.
We obtained some data described in the above figure as an Experiment of SVD. Let’s give this data the matrix form:
We get α1 and α2 after singular value decomposition. The corresponding values of the second singular values could be ignored and there are some noises in the datum since the first singular value is much larger than the second one.
The main sample points after the decomposition of SVD are shown in fig below:
Principle component analysis also uses the Singular value decomposition to observe the values that depends on each other between rough data collected.
By observing the main sample datum that obtained, we believe that the process has some relation with principle component analysis.
Dimensionality reduction techniques like singular value decomposition (SVD) and principal component analysis (PCA) are commonly used in interpretation of the data analysis and Machine Learning. Both try to discover a linear collection of inputs in the initial high-dimensional data matrix in order to provide a representative picture of the database and both of them are typical linear dimensionality reduction algorithms.
Various fields select them while dimensionality reduction.
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]]>The post What is the application of linear algebra in cryptography? appeared first on EE-Vibes.
]]>What is the application of linear algebra in cryptography? Application of linear algebra in cryptography. Linear algebra is widely used in many engineering applications. The most common examples are: network solving, chemical equation balancing, engineering economy and in network security. With the advancement in technology, we prefer to communicate via network these days. Sending text messages, voice notes, online banking are the applications that demand to send/receive information without being hacked. The purpose of hacking is to retrieve the information being send between sender and receiver. In order to avoid hacking messages are encrypted/ encoded with different encoding schemes. One of them is cryptography.
Cryptography is a technique of encoding our actual information with a proper “key” that is supposed to be known to both: the sender and receiver. The message is encoded using this key. Hence the original information is transformed into another form and then transferred to the receiver. Upon receiving that message, the receiver decrypts that message using the same key. Hence the communication is secured.
In this example lets say a sender wants to send a message “good morning”. In order to send the message, all the alphabets are numbered starting from 0 to 25. Then the blank is assigned value=26 and so on as shown in the figure below. Then using a given key these messages are encoded. The example shows the complete detail of the work.
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]]>The post What are the types of Pulse Width Modulation Techniques? appeared first on EE-Vibes.
]]>What are the types of Pulse Width Modulation Technique (PWM)? Pulse Width Modulation(PWM) technique is used for controlling the AC output of power electronics converters. In this technique duty cycle can be varied from high frequency to some desired low frequency output current/voltages. Modulation techniques have always been of great interest for researchers from many years and still they attract many new researchers.
All the modulation techniques produce the train of switching pulses with some unwanted harmonics present in them that need to be minimized. There are many PWM schemes but each scheme needs to satisfy two objectives:
The dc input that is applied to the inverter is chopped by the switching circuits present in the inverter circuit. Duty cycle helps to control the harmonics and amplitude of the AC output voltages. For a square wave output the fundamental voltages (V1) has the magnitude 4V_{d}/π. The amplitude V1 is reduced because of the notches as shown in the figure below.
Based on the methods of implementation, there are many PWM techniques. Each technique aims to produce the sinusoidal voltages of the desired fundamental frequency and amplitude. But for the inverter circuits because of the presence of harmonics, it is not possible to reduce the distortion. The magnitude of lower-order harmonic voltages can be reduced by controlling the switching. But this also results in increase of magnitude of higher-order harmonic voltages.
This situation is acceptable because the higher-order harmonics can be filtered using the filtering circuits and capacitors specially like motors who have the ability to surpass the high harmonic currents.
In order to check the quality of the PWM signal produced by the inverter, a detailed harmonic analysis of output waveform can be done.
Following are the basic PWM techniques:
Multiple Pulse Width Modulation
In this technique there is only one pulse present half per cycle. Here the width of the pulse is varied to control the output voltages of the inverter. There is a reference signal (Rectangular) and a carrier signal (triangular). They both are compared for creating the gating signal as shown in the figure below.
The fundamental frequency of the output voltage is determined from the frequency of reference signals.
Because of the symmetry of output voltages along the x-axis, the even harmonics are not present and if we make the pulse width equal to 2π/n, then nth order harmonics can also be eliminated.
In this technique, many equidistant pulses are generated per half cycle. Harmonic contents are reduced because of the several pulses present per half cycle. The output of this technique is shown below.
This technique is used at industrial level to control the output voltages of inverter. By comparing a reference signal with high frequency triangular signal, the ON and OFF instances can be determined of the pulse. As an output signal we get a modulation signal with a Sine wave. The frequency of modulation signal decides the frequency of output signal. Figure below shows this technique.
This is the most accurate modulation technique with minimum harmonics and it eliminates all the harmonics of order (2n-1).
Here the carrier (triangular) wave is compared with reference (Trapezoidal) wave the switching pulses are generated as shown below
This is called optimized PWM when the number of pulses is less than 15 per half cycle.
This modulation technique produces low distortion but higher fundamental amplitude. Its input signal is stepped wave. The signal is divided into different intervals. Each interval is then controlled using different circuits. This is done for eliminating specific harmonics.
In this modulation technique, the output signal is generated by injecting harmonics to the Sine wave. The higher amplitude of fundamental frequency and low distortion is produced as shown below
Also read form here
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]]>How to Display on 8×8 Dot Matrix LED Using Arduino(UNO). In this project, we will learn how to use 8×8 dot matrix LED module with Arduino. At the end, you’ll be able to display any shape or text on one or more Dot matrix easily, fixed or scrolled, using Arduino.
A dot matrix LED is simple an array of large number of LEDs together on we can display whatever we want such as certain numbers, pattern and shapes by just blinking LED according to certain pattern. IN a Dot Matrix LED the number of matrices are determined by simply the number of columns and rows in that matrix. Although the dot matrix LED comes in different type but the most common and one which we are using in this project is dot matrix LED 8×8 which have 64 matrix mean 8 rows and 8 columns. In order to connect dot matrix LED with circuit we simply connects all the rows and columns with the digital pins which give us 16 connection in case of 8×8 dot matrix but this is wrong way of connection. In general a module called MAX72xx ICS are used for dot matrix LED circuit connection the benefit of doing this that we need to connect to 4 digital pins instead of 16. You can also connect multiple Dot Matrix (up to 8) to each other without needing any extra pin and cascades them.
In order to display certain pattern or shapes on dot matrix LED we simple connect it with the Arduino board the connections are so simple.
In the last connect Din and CLK pin of dot matrix with any of the digital pin of Arduino board.
Code for DOT Matrix display using Arduino
Now here we are going to write the cod for dot matrix on Arduino for this purpose first we have to install the libraries for dot matrix .There are various libraries for Dot matrix and Arduino. The Ledcontrol and MaxMatrixlibraries are two of the most common libraries, both have the same structure and we are using the in our project
#include <MaxMatrix.h>
int DIN = 7;
int CLK = 6;
int CS = 5;
int maxInUse = 1;
byte buffer[20];
char text[] = “a”;
MaxMatrix m(DIN, CS, CLK, maxInUse);
void setup()
{
m.init();
m.setIntensity(8);
}
void loop()
{
m.setDot(0, 7, true);
m.setDot(0, 7, true);
delay(1000);
m.setDot(7, 0, true);
delay(1000);
m.setColumn(3, B11110000);
delay(1000);
m.setColumn(4, B00001111);
delay(1000);
m.clear();
delay(1000);
}
In order to display a certain shape on our dot matrix we simply connect the Arduino board which is already connected to our dot matrix to our computer then after that we upload a certain code on our Arduino board which display the shape on matrix .the following code given below display a shape of face #include <MaxMatrix.h>
int DIN = 7;
int CLK = 6;
int CS = 5;
int maxInUse = 1;
MaxMatrix m(DIN, CS, CLK, maxInUse);
byte poker[] = {8, 8,
0xff,
0x81,
0xa5,
0xa1,
0xa1,
0xa5,
0x81,
0xff
};
byte smile[] = {8, 8,
0xff,
0x81,
0xb5,
0xa1,
0xa1,
0xb5,
0x81,
0xff
};
byte sad[] = {8, 8,
0xff,
0x81,
0xb5,
0x91,
0x91,
0xb5,
0x81,
0xff
};
byte kiss[] = {8, 8,
0xff,
0x81,
0xb5,
0xb1,
0xb1,
0xb5,
0x81,
0xff
};
void setup() {
m.init();
m.setIntensity(8);
}
void loop() {
m.writeSprite(0, 0, smile);
delay(1000);
m.clear();
m.writeSprite(0, 0, poker);
delay(1000);
m.clear();
m.writeSprite(0, 0, sad);
delay(1000);
m.clear();
m.writeSprite(0, 0, kiss);
delay(1000);
for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
m.shiftLeft(false, false);
delay(300);
}
m.clear();
}Output:
The above code will display the following shape on our Dot Matrix.
In this project simple we use a dot matrix to display different shape by using Arduino. Moreover we learn how dot matrix is connected with a circuit and how can we write code for different displays on dot matrix.
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]]>The post How to Design RGB Mood Lamp using Arduino? appeared first on EE-Vibes.
]]>How to Design RGB Mood Lamp using Arduino? In this project, we use LEDs of different colors to create any new color for lamp according our choice that’s the purpose of mood lamp project.
We use Arduino software for code compilation and then for uploading it to the Arduino UNO for powering it up and for hardware output. Resistors with each of the led are used to control and restrict the current.
The basic purpose of RGB mood lamp project is to generate a lamp with our favorite color combination.
Mood lamps are lighting devices that are used to establish a particular feeling or mood within a room. In some cases, this type of lamp may be a small device that is plugged into an outlet and creates points of light near the floor line of the room. Other examples of a mood lamp may be used to illuminate specific points along the walls or cast a soft light over a larger piece of furniture in the room.
We used RGB LED. This is one 5mm LED, with four legs (some have more). One leg is a normal (positive) or normal cathode (negative) and the other three go to the opposite terminal of the red, green, and blue LEDs inside the lamp.
The RGB value of 255, 0, 0 can give us pure red. The value of 0, 255, 0 will give pure green, and 0, 0, 255, pure blue. By mixing these, we can get any color we like. This is an additional color model. In this case, we set the RGB values to a random number set (256), which will give us a number between 0 and 255 combined (as the number will always be from zero upwards). If you transfer one number to a random function (), you will return the value between 0 and 1 under the number; random (1000) will return a number between 0 and 999.
If you give two numbers as parameters, it will replace the random number between the integer plus the minus 1 (−1). For example, random (10,100) will return a random number between 10 and 99. In the main program loop, we first look at the initial and end RGB values and then determine what value is needed to develop a single value. in another in 256 steps (as PWM value can be between 0 and 255 only)
Circuit Diagram of RGB Mood Lamp
Code for RGB Mood Lamp Circuit
float RGB1[3];
float RGB2[3];
float INC[3];
int red, green, blue;
int RedPin = 11;
int GreenPin = 10;
int BluePin = 9;
void setup()
{
Serial.begin(9600);
randomSeed(analogRead(0));
RGB1[0] = 0;
RGB1[1] = 0;
RGB1[2] = 0;
RGB2[0] = random(256);
RGB2[1] = random(256);
RGB2[2] = random(256);
}
void loop()
{
randomSeed(analogRead(0));
for (int x=0; x<3; x++) {
INC[x] = (RGB1[x] – RGB2[x]) / 256; }
for (int x=0; x<256; x++) {
red = int(RGB1[0]);
green = int(RGB1[1]);
blue = int(RGB1[2]);
analogWrite (RedPin, red);
analogWrite (GreenPin, green);
analogWrite (BluePin, blue);
delay(100);
RGB1[0] -= INC[0];
RGB1[1] -= INC[1];
RGB1[2] -= INC[2];
}
for (int x=0; x<3; x++) {
RGB2[x] = random(556)-300;
RGB2[x] = constrain(RGB2[x], 0, 255);
delay(1000);
}
}
The RandomSeed command is used to create random numbers (actually fake-random). Computer chips cannot generate truly random numbers, so they use a mathematical function that produces the longest random sequence of random numbers before duplication.
By setting “seeds,” you can tell the computer when the sequence has started to recover random numbers. In this case, the value we give to randomSeed is the value learned from the analog PIN 0.Since we do not have an object connected to the analog PIN 0, we will only read a random number created by the analog sound. Once we have set a “seed” for our random number, we can create one using random function ().We then had two sets of RGB values stored in a three-item list. RGB1 is the RGB value we want the lamp to start with (in this case, all zero or off).
We used Arduino to design a mood lamp, a code is constructed. Mood lighting differ somewhat from other lamps in that their purpose is not so much practical as aesthetic. Reading lamps for example tend to provide bright light to a given space in order to make it possible to read a book or magazine without creating strain on the eyes. The code constructed allows Smooth RGB mood lamp working. It changes an RGB LED’s color smoothly that only turns on
when it’s dark around it. The brightness of the LEDs follows the equations LDR in Analog Input 0 to read the ambient light, variable are to store the value of the ambient light , red LED in Digital Pin 11 (PWM),green LED in Digital Pin 10 (PWM) and blue LED in Digital Pin 9 (PWM)It tell arduino it’s an output by setting all the outputs to low. We can calculate the brightness for the red LED, the green LED and calculate the brightness for the blue LED. it store the ambient light and starts only if the ambient light is very low by write the brightness on the LEDs.
Conclusion:
In this experiment we designed a mood lamp using RGB LEDs. Overhead lighting is used when there is a need to illuminate the majority of the space, such as in a classroom or laboratory. By contrast, a mood lamp is used to help create a specific ambiance within the room as a means of making the space more attractive and welcoming in some manner.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hdaYZc2C36Q
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]]>The post Learn How many types of Printed Circuit Boards are manufactured? appeared first on EE-Vibes.
]]>How many types of Printed Circuit Boards are manufactured? In this article, you will come to know the basics of Printed Circuit Board Design and Manufacturing. Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are an integral part of electronics. They provide a means for electronic components to be mounted and connected electrically or soldered to the board, while providing protection from dust and other contaminants that might cause short circuits. This article will introduce you to printed circuit boards, their purpose in electronics, and how they work.
Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) are found in many electronics devices. They are often used to connect electronic components together, and they can be designed for a variety of uses. Printed circuit boards come with their own set of advantages and disadvantages, but they are still very commonly used today. In this article, we will discuss the basics about printed circuit boards so that you have the knowledge to fully understand them!
Printed Circuit Boards, or PCBs, are a type of electronic circuit board that has been printed onto a thin layer of flexible material. One of their most common uses is in the field of electronics where they carry out many different tasks such as connecting electrical components together and providing pathways for electric current to flow through.
Before starting to know about Printed Circuit Board Design and Manufacturing lets first see how many types of PCBs are there in market. The Types of Printed Circuit Board article is a great resource for anyone with questions about the different types of circuit boards that are available.
Printed circuit boards (PCBs) have been in use since the 1940s and they continue to be important in industries such as aerospace, defense, automobiles, and medical devices.
Choosing the right type of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) for your project can be a daunting task. There are many types to choose from, and each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. In this post we will go over some of the most common Types of PCBs, including both their benefits and drawbacks. We hope that by the end you’ll have a better understanding of what Types work best in different situations!
There are four major PCB types:
Single-sided PCBs contain only one layer on both sides of the board while double sided PCBs have two layers per side. Multilayers or thicker films can be either single sided or double sided but require more material than thinner ones because there is no cutting process involved when manufacturing.. Choosing the right type of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is a crucial step when designing any circuit. The PCB can be an integral part of the design, and choosing the wrong one could lead to production delays or even product recalls.
Single sided Printed Circuit Boards are becoming more popular in the manufacturing industry. Sigle sided PCBs are a much easier to manufacture, which makes them much cheaper when compared with double sided boards. Sigle sided boards also have many other advantages that make them the preferred choice for many manufacturers.
Single sided PCBs are the most common type of printed circuit boards. They consist of one layer, which can be either FR4 or Rogers material with copper traces on both sides. Electrically, it has two conductive planes separated by an insulating substrate. Single-sided PCBs are typically used for low volume production runs because they are easier to manufacture and debug than double-sided ones, but they do have limitations in terms of routing length and component density.
Sigle sided Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are used in many different industries. They can be found in cars, boats, heavy equipment and even space stations! Sigle sided Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) provide a number of benefits to manufacturers including:
– Increased production rates
– Reduced manufacturing costs
– Improved reliability
A double-sided PCB is a printed circuit board that has both the top and bottom layers etched onto it. This double sided PCB is typically used when there are many components on the board, or when they need to be in close proximity with one another. Double-sided boards can also offer greater ground plane isolation than single-sided boards because of their use of plated through holes in all layers.
With a double-sided PCB design you can save on material costs by cutting down on board space. Double sided boards also provide more flexibility for placement of components that need to be mounted at an angle or sometimes in hard-to-reach areas. You’ll find that these boards are even easier to assemble with component leads running along both sides of each board. This saves time spent trying to figure out which lead is connected to what hole!
A multilayer PCB is one of the most popular circuit board designs. The multilayer PCB has all the components on one side and then alternates copper layers with insulating layers, which are laminated together to form an electrical connection between each layer. A multilayer PCB can be made in single or multistage construction. Single-stage multilayer boards have two or more metal planes that sandwich their component side while multistage boards use four levels of metal plane sandwiches with alternating dielectric material separating them.
The thickness of a printed circuit board (PCB) is determined by how many layers it contains, which determine its rigidity and weight, but also its cost.
Multilayer refers to the number of layers in a printed circuit board, while thick film is an older technology for making multilayer boards. Multilayers are typically made by laminating thin copper foil onto one side of a sheet of fiberglass-reinforced epoxy resin laminate (FR4) with adhesive and then rolling it into a cylinder. The multilayer can be finished on both sides if desired, but this is more expensive than single sided finishing with FR4. Thick films were originally developed as an inexpensive way to build multilayered boards when FR4 was scarce during World War II and later improved with the development of new materials.
A flexible Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is a PCB designed for flexible substrates. Flexible PCBs are typically fabricated on flexible materials such as plastics and polyester sheets. These flexible printed circuit boards provide circuit designers with an alternative to rigid PCBs, which can be difficult to use in some applications due to board warping or bending resulting from uneven heat distribution and thermal expansion and contraction of the substrate material.
The flexible Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) market is projected to grow at a CAGR of over 8% during the forecast period. The flexible PCBs are flexible, light weight, high density and can be used in different industries such as automotive electronics, medical devices and other infrastructures where space constraints exist. Flexible PCBs offer unique benefits which cannot be achieved by rigid circuits boards.
The flexible Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are flexible boards that can be bent or curved, but still maintain the circuitry pattern. They are flexible enough to be placed over a surface and attached with adhesive. This type of PCB is used where specific shapes are needed for their circuit design, such as in flexible displays. Flexible PCBs have many benefits including being lightweight, thin, durable and more flexible than rigid boards.
The Softwares used for designing Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are varied in nature. However, they all have one thing in common: they help to increase the efficiency of PCB design process. The Softwares used for designing Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) can be broadly classified into two types: those that provide a graphical interface and those that do not. Softwares that provide a graphical interface offer various features such as interactive drawing tools and simulation modules which reduce the time required for circuit board design. Softwares without a GUI, on the other hand, require you to type commands or use your mouse to draw circuits manually on the screen.
Softwares for designing PCBs are different from one another, each software has its own features and is suited for a specific function. Softwares like Eagle CAD, KiCad, OrCAD, AutoCAD can be used to design PCBs with their respective functions.
Printed Circuit Board Design and Manufacturing: Printed circuit board manufacturers are a critical component of the electronics industry. They provide printed circuit boards for a wide variety of products, including automobiles and medical devices. The printed circuit boards they produce can be used to keep track of inventory, connect power sources to various components, or perform other vital functions in electronic systems. These printed circuit boards may be manufactured with copper wiring or fiber optic cables that carry signals from one end to another. In order to create printed circuits for these types of boards, manufacturers must use sophisticated computer-controlled equipment that is capable of producing very precise designs and patterns using materials such as copper foil sheets or photoresist films.
Printed circuit boards or PCBs are printed circuits that have been manufactured with a printed pattern of copper foil and an insulating layer, which is then etched away to leave behind the printed patterns. Here at Springboard Manufacturing, they manufacture printed circuit boards for many industries including medical devices, telecommunications equipment, computers and consumer electronics.
List of others Printed Circuit Board Design and Manufacturing is given below:
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