How solar panel is constructed using photovoltaic cell?

Photovoltaic (PV) Cell Structure and Operation

How solar panel is constructed using photovoltaic cell? The photovoltaic impact is the essential actual cycle by which a sun oriented cell changes over daylight into power. Daylight contains photons or “parcels” of energy adequate to make electron-opening sets in the n and p districts. Electrons aggregate in the n-district and openings amass in the p area, delivering an expected contrast (voltage) across the cell. At the point when an outer burden is associated, the electrons course through the semiconductor material and give current to the outside burden. Solar panels are designed using PV cells.

What are the solar panels?

In spite of the fact that there are different sorts of sun based cells and proceeding research guarantees new advancements later on, the glasslike silicon sun oriented cell is by a long shot the most broadly utilized. A silicon sun oriented cell comprises of a dainty layer or wafer of silicon that has been doped to make a pn junction. The profundity and circulation of pollution molecules can be controlled exactly during the doping cycle. The most ordinarily utilized cycle for making a silicon ingot, from which a silicon wafer is cut, is known as the Czochralski strategy. In this cycle, a seed gem of silicon is dunked into dissolved polycrystalline silicon. As the seed gem is removed and pivoted, a tube shaped ingot of silicon is framed. Dainty roundabout formed wafers are cut from an ingot of super unadulterated silicon and afterward are cleaned and managed to an octagonal, hexagonal, or rectangular shape for most extreme inclusion when fitted into a cluster. The silicon wafer is doped so the n locale is a lot more slender than the p district to allow light infiltration, as appeared in Figure below.

Basic construction of (PV) cell
Basic construction of photovoltaic solar cell

A framework work of flimsy conductive contact strips are kept on top of the wafer by strategies, for example, photoresist or silk-screen, as appeared to a limited extent (b). The contact matrix must expand the surface territory of the silicon wafer that be presented to the daylight to gather however much light energy as could be expected. How solar panel is constructed using photovoltaic cell?

The conductive matrix across the highest point of the cell is vital with the goal that the electrons have a more limited distance to go through the silicon when an outer burden is associated. The farther electrons travel through the silicon material, the more noteworthy the energy misfortune because of opposition. A strong contact covering the entirety of the lower part of the wafer is then added, as shown in the figure. Thickness of the sun powered cell contrasted with the surface territory is incredibly misrepresented for motivations behind representation. How solar panel is constructed using photovoltaic cell?

After the contacts are consolidated, an antireflective covering is put on top the contact matrix and n area, as appeared in Figure(c). This permits the sun powered cell to retain as a large part of the sun’s energy as conceivable by diminishing the measure of light energy reflected away from the outside of the cell. At last, a glass or straightforward plastic layer is appended to the highest point of the cell with straightforward glue to shield it from the climate. Figure below shows a finished sun powered cell.

photovoltaic solar cell (PV)
A complete photovoltaic solar cell

Operation of a Solar Cell

As shown previously, daylight is made out of photons, or “parcels” of energy. The sun delivers a bewildering measure of energy. The little part of the sun’s all out energy that arrives at the earth is sufficient to meet the entirety of our capacity needs many occasions over. There is adequate sun powered energy striking the earth every hour to satisfy overall needs for a whole year. The n-type layer is flimsy contrasted with the p locale to permit light infiltration into the p locale. The thickness of the whole cell is really about the thickness of an eggshell. At the point when a photon enters either the n area or the p-type district and strikes a silicon  pn junction with adequate energy to take an electron out of the valence band, the electron turns into a free electron and leaves an opening in the valence band, making an electron-opening pair. The measure of energy needed to liberate an electron from the valence band of a silicon iota is known as the band-hole energy and is 1.12 eV (electron volts). In the p locale, the free electron is cleared across the exhaustion area by the electric field into the n area. In the n area, the opening is cleared across the exhaustion locale by the electric field into the p area. Electrons gather in the n locale, making a negative charge; what’s more, openings gather in the p locale, making a positive charge. A voltage is created between the n district and p area contacts, as appeared in Figure below.

PV cell and incident light
Basic operation of solar cell with incident light

At the point when a heap is associated with a sun oriented cell through the top and base contacts, the free electrons stream out of the n district to the network contacts on the top surface, through the negative contact, through the heap and back into the positive contact on the base surface, and into the p area where they can recombine with openings. The daylight energy proceeds to make new electron-opening sets and the cycle goes on, as shown in Figure shown below. How solar panel is constructed using photovoltaic cell?

A solar cell producing voltage and current through a load under incident sunlight.
A solar cell producing voltage and current through a load under incident sunlight.

Solar Cell Characteristics

Sun based cells are ordinarily 100 cm2 to 225 cm2 in size. The usable voltage from silicon sun based cells is around 0.5 V to 0.6 V. Terminal voltage is just somewhat subject to the power of light radiation, yet the current increments with light force. For instance, a 100 cm2 silicon cell arrives at a greatest current of roughly 2 A when transmitted by 1000 W/m2 of light. Figure below shows the V-I trademark bends for an ordinary sun powered cell for different light powers. Higher light power delivers more current. The working point for most extreme power yield for a given light force ought to be in the “knee” region of the bend, as shown by the ran line. The heap on the sun powered cell controls this working point (R=V/I).

Relation b/w v/I wrt to light intensity
V-I characteristic for a typical single solar cell from increasing light intensities.


Solar Cell Panels

As of now, the issue is in tackling sunlight based energy in adequate sums and at a sensible cost to meet our necessities. It takes around a square meter sun oriented board to produce 100 W in a bright atmosphere. Some energy can be gathered regardless of whether overcast cover exists, yet no energy can be gotten during the evening. A solitary sun oriented cell is unrealistic for most applications since it can create just about 0.5 V to 0.6 V. To create higher voltages, numerous sun oriented cells are associated in arrangement as appeared in Figure below. For instance, the six arrangement cells will in a perfect world produce 6(0.5 V) 3 V. Since they are associated in arrangement, the six cells will create a similar current as a single cell. For expanded current limit, arrangement cells are associated in equal, as appeared to some extent (b). Accepting a cell can create 2 A, the arrangement equal plan of twelve cells will create 4 An at 3 V. Numerous cells associated with produce a predefined power yield are called sun powered boards or sun based modules.

Solar cells connected together to create an array called a solar panel.
solar panel obtained by connecting multiple PV cells

Sun powered boards are by and large accessible in 12 V, 24 V, 36 V, and 48 V adaptations. Higher yield sun powered boards are likewise accessible for extraordinary applications. In reality, a 12 V sun powered board creates in excess of 12 V (15 V to 20 V) to charge a 12 V battery and redress for voltage drops in the arrangement association and different misfortunes. In a perfect world, a board with 24 person sun powered cells is needed to create a yield of 12 V, expecting every cell produces 0.5 V. In practice, in excess of thirty cells are commonly utilized in a 12 V board. Makers for the most part determine the yield of a sunlight based board as far as force at a specific sun based radiation called the top sun irradiance which is 1000 W/m2. For instance, a 12 V sun oriented board that has a evaluated voltage of 17 V and produces a current of 3.5 A to a heap at top sun condition has

a predetermined yield intensity of P = VI = (17 V)(3.5 A) = 59.5W

Numerous sunlight based boards can be interconnected to frame enormous exhibits for high force yields.

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