Table of Contents
Introduction to the system
discuss the stimulation study of Elevator’s control system. Hit the top button on the elevator and prepare yourself for a long ride: in just a few days you’ll be waving back from space! Elevators that can zoom up beyond Earth have certainly captured people’s imagination in the decade or so since space scientists first proposed them—and it’s no wonder. But in their time ordinary office elevators probably seemed almost as radical. It wasn’t just brilliant building materials such as steel and concrete that allowed modern skyscrapers to soar to the clouds: it was the invention, in 1861, of the safe, reliable elevator by a man named Elisha Graves Otis of Yonkers, New York. Otis literally changed the face of the Earth by developing a machine he humbly called an “improvement in hoisting apparatus,” which allowed cities to expand vertically as well as horizontally. That’s why his invention can rightly be described as one of the most important machines of all time. Let’s take a closer look at elevators and find out how they work!
What is an elevator?
From the viewpoint of someone traveling from the lobby to the 18th floor, an elevator is simply a metal box with doors that close on one floor and then open again on another. For those of us who are more curious, the key parts of an elevator are:
- One or more cars (metal boxes) that rise up and down.
- Counterweights that balance the cars.
- An electric motor that hoists the cars up and down, including a braking system. (Some elevators use hydraulic mechanisms instead.)
- A system of strong metal cables and pulleys running between the cars and the motors.
- Various safety systems to protect the passengers if a cable breaks.
In large buildings, an electronic control system that directs the cars to the correct floors using a so-called “elevator algorithm” (a sophisticated kind of mathematical logic) to ensure large numbers of people are moved up and down in the quickest, most efficient way (particularly important in huge, busy skyscrapers at rush hour). Intelligent systems are programmed to carry many more people upward than downward at the beginning of the day and the reverse at the end of the day. discuss the stimulation study of Elevator’s control system.
How elevator use energy?
Scientifically, elevators are all about energy. To get from the ground to the 18th floor walking upstairs you have to move the weight of your body against the downward-pulling force of gravity. The energy you expend in the process is (mostly) converted into potential energy, so climbing stairs gives an increase in your potential energy (going up) or a decrease in your potential energy (going down). This is an example of the law of conservation of energy in action. You really do have more potential energy at the top of a building than at the bottom, even if it doesn’t feel any different.
To a scientist, an elevator is simply a device that increases or decreases a person’s potential energy without them needing to supply that energy themselves: the elevator g…
In practice, elevators work in a slightly different way from simple hoists. The elevator car is balanced by a heavy counterweight that weighs roughly the same amount as the car when it’s loaded half-full (in other words, the weight of the car itself plus 40–50 percent of the total weight it can carry). When the elevator goes up, the counterweight goes down—and vice-versa, which helps us in four ways:
The counterweight makes it easier for the motor to raise and lower the car—just as sitting on a see-saw makes it much easier to lift someone’s weight compared to lifting them in your arms. Thanks to the counterweight, the motor needs to use much less force to move the car either up or down. Assuming the car and its contents weigh more than the counterweight, all the motor has to lift is the difference in weight between the two and supply a bit of extra force to overcome friction in the pulleys and so on. Since less force is involved, there’s less strain on the cables—which makes the elevator a little bit safer. The counterweight reduces the amount of energy the motor needs to use. This is intuitively obvious to anyone who’s ever sat on a see-saw: assuming the see-saw is properly balanced, you can bob up and down any number of times without ever really getting tired—quite different from lifting someone in your arms, which tires you very quickly. This point also follows from the first one: if the motor is using less force to move the car the same distance, it’s doing less work against the force of gravity. The counterweight reduces the amount of braking the elevator needs to use. Imagine if there were no counterweight, a heavily loaded elevator car would be really hard to pull upwards but, on the return journey, would tend to race to the ground all by itself if there weren’t some sort of sturdy brake to stop it. The counterweight makes it much easier to control the elevator car.
In a different design, known as a duplex counterweight less elevator, two cars are connected to opposite ends of the same cable and effectively balance each other, doing away with the need for a counterweight. discuss the stimulation study of Elevator’s control system.
Everyone who’s ever traveled in an escalator has had the same thought: what if the cable holding this thing suddenly snaps? Rest assured, there’s nothing to worry about. If the cable snaps, a variety of safety systems prevent an elevator car from crashing to the floor. This was the great innovation that Elisha Graves Otis made back in the 1860s. His elevators weren’t simply supported by ropes: they also had a ratchet system as a backup. Each car ran between two vertical guide rails with sturdy metal teeth embedded all the way up them. At the top of each car, there was a spring-loaded mechanism with hooks attached. If the cable broke, the hooks sprung outward and jammed into the metal teeth in the guide rails, locking the car safely in position.
Modern elevators have multiple safety systems. Like the cables on a suspension bridge, the cable in an elevator is made from many metal strands of wire rope twisted together so a small failure of one part of the cable isn’t, initially at least, going to cause any problems. Most elevators also have multiple, separate cables supporting each car, so the complete failure of one cable leaves others functioning in its place. Even if all the cables break, this system will still hold the car in place.
Finally, if you’ve ever looked at a transparent glass elevator, you’ll have noticed a giant hydraulic or gas spring buffer at the bottom to cushion against an impact if the safety brake should somehow fail.
The mechanism behind an elevator: How does an elevator work?
Imagine a terrifying situation where you have a very important meeting in say a skyscraper – 30 floors that everyone in your city brags about them – and your meeting will be held in the 29th floor. Okay here is the situation… You are late!! The meeting will start in less than 10 minutes, however this is just the beginning, the bad news is… THE ELEVATORS ARE NOT WORKING!!!!!So you’re stuck in just 2 options. Either to take the stairs, or if you are a highly trained athlete it’ll take you at least 45 minutes to reach your destination. The other one is to call them pretending you have a very bad flu and you could not move from your bed despite the cost of such call. So how does this little metal box called elevator can have a very crucial role in our lives. How does an elevator work? discuss the stimulation study of Elevator’s control system.
Elevators are mainly concerned with energy. When you’re trying to walk up or down stairs you are now walking against gravity which enforces you to expend Potential Energy. Climbing up the stairs will result in increasing your potential energy while climbing down the stairs decreases it; which is an example of the law of conservation of energy. Thus, in Theory, and to simplify it without the physics complications, elevators are devices that make the potential energy in a person increase or decrease without even costing them to produce this kind of energy.
Elevator’s major components
The elevator consists of a lot of intertwined and crossed parts, however the most popular/ important parts are:
- The Counterweight
- The Car (metal box)
- Pulley system with electric motor
- The Cables
- The pulley system is pulling up or down the car by metal cables which enables the elevator to move through different floors, very simple right… Not exactly!!!
- The Counterweight
Block Diagram of Elevator Working mechanism
The following diagram shows the elevator working mechanism.
Anyway how does this metal weight/hoist called Counterweight contribute to this mechanism? It simply contributes Balance.
The Counterweight is balancing the elevator’s movement, weighs about half a fully-loaded car. When the counterweight goes up the elevator moves down and vice versa as simple as that, however, it has a great benefit.
Let’s imagine the corresponding situation to have a better picture. Without a counterweight, the whole load will be mainly on the pulley system and the cables. That requires the motor to generate more energy to lift the car. In spite of just requiring to say 500 KJ with the existence of the counterweight, now it needs to double the energy to lift the same load. The counterweight has also its own role with the safety system in case of cables and braking system, the strain on the cables will decrease making the elevators a little bit safer.
While the braking system will have the same case with the counterweight, the elevators now can use less amount of braking to slow down the elevator’s speed.
Imagine if there were no counterweight: a heavily loaded elevator car would be really hard to pull upwards. But on the return journey, the elevator would tend to race to the ground all by itself if there wasn’t some sort of sturdy brake to stop it. discuss the stimulation study of Elevator’s control system.
In order to control the speed of the elevator, there has to be a separate speed-regulator machine which is called the Speed Governor. It is a very complicated flywheel supported with massive mechanical arms. The speed governor has the full control over the elevator’s speed. So if there is a problem with the elevator that makes it move too fast, the first mechanism inside the speed governor trips one or more of the braking system. Moreover, it can cut off the power from the lift motor. If this fails in making the elevators slow down; the other mechanism will allow the arms inside the governor to fly up even further to stop the elevator from moving.
Another terrifying image, what if all the 4 cables holding the elevator snapped?! Well, before 1860s you would have been flying in the elevator like Einstein in his thoughts. However, after this date a simple mechanism invented by Elisha Graves Otis to have ratchet system as a backup.
Each car ran between two vertical guide rails with sturdy metal teeth embedded all the way up to them. At the top of each car, there was a spring-loaded mechanism with hooks attached. If the cable broke the hooks sprung outward and jammed into the metal teeth in the guide rails, locking the car safely in its position. So you are stuck between floors but at least you are not smashed, so just wait for help. Not only is this but also there another emergency system for the elevator. A giant hydraulic or gas spring buffer located at the bottom to cushion in case if there were any problems with the braking system to absorb the impact of collision.
A good elevator plan helps a building to work efficiently and safely. Well-designed elevators also complement the overall look and feel of a space. This means passengers enjoy a seamless experience when moving through the building and using the elevators.
If elevator design isn’t handled correctly from the outset it can lead to costly delays later in the process. The worst-case scenario is a poor design that gets past the planning stage, into construction and, finally, operation. This can make life miserable for passengers. Elevators that are too few, too small or just plain ugly all detract from the user experience.
It’s normal for projects to have hiccups, but by following these tips you can avoid major setbacks and set yourself on the path to success.
Elevators have something in common with other vital but unflashy technologies in our lives: we take them for granted. But, much like the internet or the hot water in your house, when elevators don’t function properly, we are quickly annoyed.
As elevators are often the overlooked heroes of a building, you probably won’t receive high praise for good elevator design. Still, it’s important to approach the design process carefully so all elements of the building work together like a well-drilled team.
The elevator industry is in the midst of several game-changing advancements that could revolutionize the way elevators operate in your buildings. Below we look at three noteworthy trends and how they are changing the industry. discuss the stimulation study of Elevator’s control system.
More Elevators, Fewer Shafts
The TWIN elevator system, more common in Europe, is now a growing trend in the US. TWIN is an elevator system where two conventional elevators are put into the same shaft and act independently of each other. A device that monitors the distance between both elevators keeps them from colliding or bumping. Elevators that combine multiple cabs into one shaft maximize your facility’s efficiency in four ways:
More core space:
The core of any building—including elevator shafts, restrooms and other mechanical systems—is critical. Combining two elevator cabs into one shaft effectively cuts out a shaft, creating more core space. Running two elevators in the same shaft logically leads to fewer elevator shafts taking up the space that owners could use for other things.
Added movement capacity:
Traditional elevator systems are only designed to handle so much foot traffic at any given time. What are building owners supposed to do when their levels of traffic exceed their elevator’s capacity? If that number of people increases, then you typically need more elevators However with the TWIN system, you can add more elevators without having to add more shafts. You can handle more people without increasing the number of elevator shafts themselves.
In addition to increased space for building owners and faster travel for the general public, TWIN also has two options for those concerned with the energy consumption taken up by two elevators.
- Building owner can slow down the elevator usage if needed to conserve energy.3. Smaller motors:
- It’s logical for the average building owner to take a hard look at the potential energy consumption of a new elevator system. There are ways for the building owner to “slow down” the elevators if needed and reduce the energy use of the TWIN system.
- “Because of the two elevators operating in the shaft, there are times when we can reduce the speed of the cars, which then requires smaller motors .You gain efficiency in that form.
Elevator sleep mode
There are certain times in the day where both of the elevators are not needed, due to a low demand at that particular time in the building itself. During those timeframes it’s possible to put certain elevators to sleep. They can be turned off when it is most efficient for the building.
Analytics in Elevator Technology
The elevator industry, like many other industries, is experiencing a digital transformation. There are now ways for building owners and facilities managers to track advanced analytics from their elevators prioritizes three benefits from analyzing elevator data:
Elevator data is used to inform owners of when and where they might need maintenance. “Premier diagnostics and advanced analytics enables us to predictively identify, analyze and resolve possible service issues before they occur,”
For building owners interested in elevator analytics, works to make the process as easy as possible. The company created a digital portfolio designed to bring its analytics and other info into the hands of building owners wherever they are in real time.
Elevator analytics are changing the ways building owners and engineers can communicate.
Two-car elevator shaft 3:
Enhanced communication from all sides. These insights would go to waste without effective and easy-to-use communication technology.
Benefits of elevator analytics packages include:
High reliability and increased uptime, which improve overall building performance
- Insights about component lifetime that allow for mid-term planning like repairs or modernization needs
- Complete digital documentation of equipment portfolio
- Makes the elevators ready to switch from analog to digital networks
- 24/7 digital emergency service
- Future-proof solution thanks to “over the air” updates
- Increased building value
Emergency Use Elevators
Occupants are usually cautioned to avoid elevators if a building must be evacuated during an emergency. We can change building codes to allow elevators to be used in the case of an emergency evacuation. This unlocks a stunning amount of potential safety improvements for buildings. Although most modern elevators would need to be updated to fit the current code for an emergency evacuation system, the use of elevators to help transport people out of buildings could help save lives and revolutionize ADA compliance in buildings that adopt the change. discuss the stimulation study of Elevator’s control system.
Conforming to the New Codes
Occupant Evacuation Operation (OEO) and Occupant Evacuation Elevators (OEE) have both already introduced “over the air” updates
Increased building value
Emergency Use Elevators
Occupants are usually cautioned to avoid elevators if a building must be evacuated during an emergency. We can change building codes to allow elevators to be used in the case of an emergency evacuation. This unlocks a stunning amount of potential safety improvements for buildings. Although most modern elevators would need to be updated to fit the current code for an emergency evacuation system, the use of elevators to help transport people out of buildings could help save lives and revolutionize ADA compliance in buildings that adopt the change.
Conforming to the New Codes
Occupant Evacuation Operation (OEO) and Occupant Evacuation Elevators (OEE) have both already introduced.
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