# Diode: a non linear semiconductor device

Why diode is called a non linear device? As we all know diode: a non linear semiconductor device that is used to conduct the current in only one direction. Its the basic circuit element in electronics (where we study the controlled motion of electrons). It is designed using two semiconductor materials: p-type and n-type. The junction where these two material intersect is called the pn junction. The other name of pn junction is depletion region as it is depleted of free electrons.

## How conduction occurs in diode?

There are two ways to bias the diode: forward bias and reverse bias. In reverse biasing the positive terminal of the battery is connected with the n-type and the negative terminal of the battery is connected with the p-type. There is no conduction current in this case. Only current that flows is the leakage current that is because of minority charge carriers. It is of the order if micro amperes. In this case the internal resistance of the diode is very high as width of the depletion region increase with more reverse biasing voltages. If you keep increasing the reverse bias voltages then there comes a time when an abrupt amount of current will flow through the diode. This phenomenon is called breakdown and the voltages at which this happens is called the ‘breakdown voltages‘.

when the diode is connected such that the positive terminal of the battery is connected with the p-side and the negative side is connected with n-side it is called forward biasing. In forward biasing diode conducts current of the order of milliampere. In this case the internal resistance of the diode is very small. The current flowing in this case is because of majority charge carriers. It is given as: Here Vd are diode biased voltages, VT are the thermal voltages, Is is the saturation current, and ID is the amount of current that flows through diode on biased voltages.

Now as we all know that any device that has direct relation of its current with its voltages is called a linear device or ohmic device. In simple words, if a device follows ohm’s law then it is called a linear device otherwise a non-linear. For better understanding lets have look at VI characteristics of  general purpose diode.

If you plot the graph of the observations of the following circuit you get the V-I trademark bend for a forward-one-sided diode, as appeared in the figure below. The diode forward voltage (VF) increments to one side along the level pivot, and the forward current (IF) increments upward along the vertical hub. As you can find in Figure , the forward current increments almost no until the forward voltage across the pn intersection arrives at roughly 0.7 V at the knee of the bend. After this point, the forward voltage remains almost consistent at around 0.7 V, however IF increments quickly. As recently referenced, there is a slight expansion in VF above 0.7 V as the current increments due essentially to the voltage drop across the dynamic obstruction. The IF scale is normally in mA, as demonstrated. Three focuses A, B, and C are appeared on the bend in Figure 2–10(a). Point A relates to a zero-inclination condition. Point B compares to Figure 2–10(a) where the forward voltage is not exactly the hindrance capability of 0.7 V. Point C relates to Figure (a) where the forward voltage around approaches the obstruction potential. As the outer predisposition voltage also, forward current keep on expanding over the knee, the forward voltage will increment somewhat above 0.7 V. Actually, the forward voltage can be as much as roughly 1 V, contingent upon the forward current.

### Dynamic Resistance showing diode: a non linear semiconductor device

Above figure shows an extended perspective on the V-I trademark bend to some degree (a) and shows dynamic resistance. In contrast to a direct obstruction, the opposition of the forward-one-sided diode isn’t steady over the whole bend. Since the opposition changes as you move along the V-I bend, it is called dynamic or ac obstruction. Inward protections of electronic gadgets are generally assigned by lowercase italic r with a prime, all things considered of the standard R. The dynamic opposition of a diode is assigned Beneath the knee of the bend the opposition is most noteworthy in light of the fact that the current increments very little for a given change in voltage The opposition starts to diminish in the district of the knee of the bend and gets littlest over the knee where there is a enormous change in current for a given change in voltage.

### V-I Characteristic for Reverse Bias

At the point when a converse predisposition voltage is applied across a diode, there is just a tiny opposite current (IR) through the pn intersection. With 0 V across the diode, there is no opposite current. As you steadily increment the opposite inclination voltage, there is a little converse current and the voltage across the diode increments. At the point when the applied inclination voltage is expanded to a worth where the opposite voltage across the diode (VR) arrives at the breakdown esteem (VBR), the opposite current starts to increment quickly. As you keep on expanding the predisposition voltage, the current keeps on expanding quickly, in any case, the voltage across the diode increments next to no above VBR. Breakdown, with special cases, is certifiably not an ordinary method of activity for most pn intersection gadgets. Charting the V-I Curve If you plot the aftereffects of converse predisposition estimations on a diagram, you get the V-I trademark bend for an opposite one-sided diode. An average bend is appeared in figure. The diode turn around voltage (VR) increments to one side along the flat pivot, what’s more, the opposite current (IR) increments descending along the vertical pivot. There is next to no opposite current (generally ) until the converse voltage across the diode arrives at around the breakdown esteem (VBR) at the knee of the bend. After this point, the converse voltage stays at roughly VBR, however IR increments quickly, coming about in overheating and conceivable harm if current isn’t restricted to a protected level. The breakdown voltage for a diode relies upon the doping level, which the producer sets, contingent upon the kind of diode. An average rectifier diode (the most generally utilized sort) has a breakdown voltage of more prominent than 50 V. Some particular diodes have a breakdown voltage that is just 5 V.

## The Complete V-I Characteristic Curve

Join the bends for both forward inclination and opposite predisposition, and you have the total V-I

trademark bend for a diode, as appeared in Figure below